Environmental Challenges for Balkan Emerging Countries - An Overview


  • Florian Nuta Danubius University
  • Fatmir Memaj


Balkan countries are ex-communist countries that must recover from structural and development gaps (Moldovan and Lobont. 2014, Nuta et al., 2015a, Nuta, 2008; Nuta et al., 2023; Nuta and Nuta, 2012). At the same time, they need to adapt rapidly to the new green economic growth paradigm and to involve actively in environmental protection. Their ecological protection regulatory framework was subjugated to the need to attract investors from abroad to ensure an increased economic output at the cost of environmental degradation, as in all ex-communist developing economies (Khan et al., 2023; Nuta, 2011; Nuta and Nuta, 2017; Nuta et al., 2021; Shahbaz et al., 2023; Tiwari et al., 2023). The study's primary goal is to assess the actual situation and the perspectives for the shift from economic growth based on raw materials exploitation and heavy industry towards green economic options and energy efficiency.


Khan, I., Zhong, R., Khan, H., Dong, Y., & Nuta, F. M. (2023a). Examining the relationship between technological innovation, economic growth and carbon dioxide emission: Dynamic panel data evidence. Environment, Development and Sustainability. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-023-03384-w

Moldovan, N.C., Lobont, O.R. (2014), Reflections on the Romanian Fiscal Policy-Driven Election Manipulation Phenomenon, Economic Computation & Economic Cybernetics Studies & Research, vol 48, no 2

Nureen, N., Sun, H., Irfan, M., Nuta, A. C., & Malik, M. (2023). Digital transformation: Fresh insights to implement green supply chain management, eco-technological innovation, and collaborative capability in manufacturing sector of an emerging economy. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 30(32), 78168–78181. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-023-27796-3

Nuta AC, Cristina Nuta AC, Chirila V, Roman A, Pusca AC (2015a) Testing the relationship between public expenditure and economic growth in Romania. Acta Univ Danubius 11(4):86–102

Nuta, A. C. (2008). The incidence of public spending on economic growth. Euro Economica, 20(01), 65-68.

Nuta, A. C. C., Lupu, D., & Nuta, F. M. (2023). The impact of public education spending on economic growth in Central and Eastern Europe. An ARDL approach with structural break. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 36(1), 1261–1278. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2022.2086147

Nuta, A.C., & Nuta F.M. (2012). The effectiveness of the tax incentives on foreign direct investments. Journal of Public Administration, Finance and Law, 1(1), 55–65

Nuta, F. M. (2011), Public environmental spending and the economic growth in Romania. Euro Economica, 29(03), 109-113

Nuta, F. M., & Nuta, A. C. (2017). Greening the Economic Growth in Romania: The Environmental Footprint Approach. In W. Leal Filho, D.-M. Pociovalisteanu, & A. Q. Al-Amin (Eds.), Sustainable Economic Development (pp. 233–241). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45081-0_13

Nuta, F. M., Nuta, A. C., Zamfir, C. G., Petrea, S.-M., Munteanu, D., & Cristea, D. S. (2021). National Carbon Accounting—Analyzing the Impact of Urbanization and Energy-Related Factors upon CO2 Emissions in Central–Eastern European Countries by Using Machine Learning Algorithms and Panel Data Analysis. Energies, 14(10), 2775. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14102775

Shahbaz, M., Nuta, A. C., Mishra, P., & Ayad, H. (2023). The impact of informality and institutional quality on environmental footprint: The case of emerging economies in a comparative approach. Journal of Environmental Management, 348, 119325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2023.119325

Tiwari, S., Sharif, A., Nuta, F., Nuta, A. C., Cutcu, I., & Eren, M. V. (2023). Sustainable pathways for attaining net-zero emissions in European emerging countries—The nexus between renewable energy sources and ecological footprint. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 30(48), 105999–106014. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-023-29704-1