The Reform of the Romanian Police Forces between Necessity and Possibility
Keywords:reform; police; gendarmerie; government authorities; Public Service; Public Order
Police Forces today face new challenges requiring the requirement to redefine (review) procedures
to identify the most effective responses. All these years, the theme of police reform in Romania has been a
constant one. Under these conditions we must consider the particular factors in which these forces were
established and evolved over time. The purpose of this article concerns the basic aspects from the legislative
perspective of the organization and functioning of the public order forces in Romania and the arguments for
which the gendarmerie forces must be rethought as police forces in the field of Public Order, and by reference
to the most important moments in the evolution of this institution. The Romanian Gendarmerie was founded
on the French model, but the developments were interrupted by historical events that fundamentally changed
its role and duties.
Alexe, N. A. (2014). Jandarmii ?i mili?ienii de la sate/Village gendarmes and militiamen. Sibiu: Astra Museum.
Carter, D. L., & Carter, J. G. (2008). Intelligence Led Policing: Conceptual and Functional Considerations for Public Policy.
Criminal Justice Policy Review, 20(3),, 310-325.
Jobard, F. (2014). Conceptualizing of Police. In G. Bruinsma, & D. (. Weisburd, Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal
John, E. E., & Spelman, W. (1987). Problem-Solving. Problem-Oriented Policing in Newport News. U.S. Department of
Justice, National Institute of Justice.
Preece, J. J. (2011). Security in international relations. London: University of London.
Rojas Juárez, José Rafael (2018). Código normativo de fuerzas y cuerpos de seguridad del Estado/Normative code of state
security forces and bodies. Ministerio del Interior, Secretaría General Técnica.
*** Romanian Constitution, Official Monitor no. 233 of November 21, 1991 (amended and supplemented by the Law on the
revision of the Romanian Constitution no. 429 of 2003, Official Monitor of Romania, no. 758 of October 29, 2003;
republished in the Official Monitor no. 767 of October 31, 2003).
*** Law no. 218 of April 23, 2002 (republished) regarding the organization and functioning of the Romanian Police, Official
Monitor no. 170 of March 2, 2020.
*** Law no. 550 of November 29, 2004 on the organization and functioning of the Romanian Gendarmerie, Official Monitor
of Romania no. 1175 of December 13, 2004, with subsequent amendments.
*** Law no. 371 of September 20, 2004 on the establishment, organization and operation of the Community Police, Official
Monitor no. 878 of September 27, 2004.
*** Law no. 155 of July 12, 2010 of the local police, Official Monitor no. 488 of July 15, 2010 (republished, Official
Monitor no. 339 of May 8, 2014).
*** Law no. 360 of June 6, 2002 (updated) on the Statute of the police officer, Official Monitor no. 440 of June 24, 2002.
*** Organic Law 2/1986, of March 13, on Security Forces and Corps, Head of State, Official State Monitor, no. 63, March
*** Organic Law 4/2015, of March 30, on the protection of citizen security, Head of State, Official State Monitor, no. 77,
March 31, 2015.
*** Government Decision no. 1,332 / 2010 on the approval of the Framework Regulation for the organization and
functioning of the local police, Official Monitor no. 882 of December 29, 2010.
*** Government Decision no. 991 of August 25, 2005 for the approval of the Code of ethics and deontology of the police
officer, Official Monitor no. 813 of September 7, 2005.
*** Government Decision no. 1,305 of November 20, 2002 (updated) regarding the approval of the Regulation on the
organization and functioning of the National Police Corps, Official Monitor no. 877 of December 5, 2002.
*** Code de déontologie de la police nationale et de la gendarmerie nationale/ Code of ethics of the national police and the
national gendarmerie, Ministère de l'intérieur, République Française, 2014.
*** Understanding Community Policing. A Framework for Action, Monograph, Bureau of Justice Assistance, August 1994.
*** Changing cultural and social norms that support violence, World Health Organization, 2009.
*** Recommendations on the Protection of Fundamental Rights in the Context of National Security, Council of Bars & Law
Societies of Europe, 2019.
*** Community Oriented Policing Services, Community Policing Defined, U.S. Department of Justice, 2012.
*** City officials guide to Policing in the 21st Century, National League of Cities (NLC), Washington, 2016.
*** Reducing Crime through Intelligence-Led Policing, Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2008.
*** Guidebook on Democratic Policing, OSCE, Vienna, May 2008, 2nd Edition.
*** Operational Strategies to Build Police-Community Trust and Reduce Crime in Minority Communities: The Minneapolis
Cedar-Riverside Exploratory Policing Study, Police Executive Research Forum, Washington, D.C., 2017.
*** Gend’Info, Direction générale de la gendarmerie nationale, Juin/Juillet/ General Directorate of the National Gendarmerie,
June / July 2019.
*** mémoGEND, 2016.
Copyright (c) 2021 Gabriela Adina Margarit; Tutu Pisleag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
You are free to:
- Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
- Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material
- for any purpose, even commercially.
- The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.
Under the following terms:
- No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.