Opinions Surrounding the Current Hybrid Confrontation


  • Liviu-Mihail Marinescu Danubius University of Galati
  • Viorel-Catalin Mihalcea “CAROL I” National Defence University
  • Gabriela-Elena Sirbu „CAROL I” National Defence University


hybrid warfare, hard power, soft power, smart power, resilience, kinetic, non-kinetic


In most states in the world, the ethnic structure of the population also includes minorities, which can be massively supported from outside the country by a dominant regional power, in order to produce desired ends during confrontations with hybrid developments. It is envisaged that radicalised ethnic groups will be massively supported by conventional forces, elite structures and paramilitary forces. These forces can act under the auspices of a strong information campaign, launched by an international actor with massive potential. The hybrid spectrum knows no established forms; subtle and subversive implications can result in multiple dimensions intertwining – political, economic, propaganda, special operations, conventional kinetic operations, non-kinetic implications, social and ethnic disorders, diplomatic or other implications. Romania’s requirements, priorities and level of security require a complex analysis of the hybrid risks and challenges manifested globally, regionally and sub-regionally (zonal), which have a relevant level of impact on the Carpathian-Danubian-Pontic area. The analytical dimension must include specific elements, deriving from Romania’s location in the external eastern border of NATO and the European Union.






International Relations in the Contemporary World. Geopolitics and Diplomacy